March 17, Ignorance by Content and Omission - No thinking person should take any government at its word, especially this one. Governments lie in part because they represent special interest groups rather than the ordinary citizens that comprise the great majority. Most governments fear and loath its citizens because they are clandestinely betraying them.
Charcot, Janet, and Freud all noted that fragmented memories of traumatic events dominated the mental life of many of their patient and built their theories about the nature and treatment of psychopathology on this recognition. Janet 75 thought that traumatic memories of traumatic events persist as unassimilated fixed ideas that act as foci for the development of alternate states of consciousness, including dissociative phenomena, such as fugue states, amnesias, and chronic states of helplessness and depression.
Unbidden memories of the trauma may return as physical sensations, horrific images or nightmares, behavioral reenactments, or a combination of these. Janet showed how traumatized individuals become fixated on the trauma: It is "as if their personality development has stopped at a certain point and cannot expand anymore by the addition or assimilation of new elements.
The trauma permanently disturbed the capacity to deal with other challenges, and the victim who did not integrate the trauma was doomed to "repeat the repressed material as a contemporary experience in instead or.
Many traumatized people expose themselves, seemingly compulsively, to situations reminiscent of the original trauma. These behavioral reenactments are rarely consciously understood to be related to earlier life experiences.
This "repetition compulsion" has received surprisingly little systematic exploration during the 70 years since its discovery, though it is regularly described in the clinical literature.
Children seem more vulnerable than adults to compulsive behavioral repetition and loss of conscious memory of the trauma. However, responses to projective tests show that adults, too, are liable to experience a large range of stimuli vaguely reminiscent of the trauma as a return of the trauma itself, and to react accordingly.
Harm to Others Re-enactment of victimization is a major cause of violence. Criminals have often been physically or sexually abused as children. Lewis 89,91 has extensively studied the association between childhood abuse and subsequent victimization of others.
Recently, she showed that of 14 juveniles condemned to death for murder in the United States in12 had been brutally physically abused, and five had been sodomized by relatives. This constellation of symptoms is a common phenomenon among a member of environmentally deprived animals.
Green 53,54 found that 41 per cent of his sample of abused children engaged in headbanging, biting, burning, and cutting. In a controlled, double-blind study on traumatic antecedents of borderline personality disorder, we found a highly significant relationship between childhood sexual abuse and various kinds of self-harm later in life, particularly cutting and self-starving.
They sum up the conclusions of many students of this problem in stating that "self-destructive activities were not primarily related to conflict, guilt and superego pressure, but to more primitive behavior patterns originating in painful encounters wih hostile caretakers during the first years of life.
Victims of child sexual abuse are at high risk of becoming prostitutes. Whereas 38 per cent of a random sample of women reported incidents of rape or attempted rape after age 14, 68 per cent of those with a childhood history of incest did.
Twice as many women with a history of physical violence in their marriages 27 per centand more than twice as many 53 per cent reported unwanted sexual advances by an unrelated authority figure such as a teacher, clergyman, or therapist.
Victims of father-daughter incest were four times more likely than nonincest victims to be asked to pose for pornography. In one study of adults who who had recently been in accidents, 68 57 per cent showed behavioral re-enactments, and 51 per cent had recurrent intrusive images.
In this study, the frequency with which recurrent memories were experienced on a somatic level, as panic and anxiety attacks, was not examined.
Studies of burned children and adult survivors of natural and manmade disasters 67, show that, over time, rucurrent symbolic or visual recollections and behavioral re-enactments abate, but there is often persistent chronic anxiety that can be interpreted as partial somatosensory reliving, dissociated from visual or linguistic representations of the trauma.
For example, we treated a Vietnam veteran who had lit a cigarette at night and caused the death of a friend by a VietCong sniper's bullet in From toon the exact anniversary of the death, to the hour and minute, he yearly committed "armed robbery" by putting a finger in his pocket and staging a "holdup," in order to provoke gunfire from the police.
The compulsive re-enactment ceased when he came to understand its meaning. Physical and emotional maturation, as well as innate variations in physiologic reactivity to perceived danger, play important roles in the capacity to deal with external threat.
If the caregiver is rejecting and abusive, children are likely to become hyperaroused.
When the persons who are supposed to be the sources of safety and nurturance become simultaneously the sources of danger against which protection is needed, children maneuver to re-establish some sense of safety. Instead of turning on their caregivers and thereby losing hope for protection, they blame themselves.
They become fearfully and hungrily attached and anxiously obedient. As children mature, they continually acquire new cognitive schemata in which to frame current life experiences. These ever-expanding cognitive schemes decrease their reliance on the environment for soothing and increase their own capacity to modulate physiologic arousal in the face of threat.
Thus, the cognitive preparedness development of an individual interacts with the degree of physiologic disorganization to determine the capacity for mental processing of potentially traumatizing experiences.
There are significant sex differences in the way trauma victims incorporate the abuse experience. Studies by Carmen et al.
Reiker and colleagues have pointed out that "confrontations wih violence challenges one's most basic assumptions about the self as invulnerable and intrinsically worthy and about the world as orderly and just. After abuse, the victim's view of self and world can never be the same again:Immanuel Kant.
Towards the end of his most influential work, Critique of Pure Reason(/), Kant argues that all philosophy ultimately aims at answering these three questions: “What can I know?What should I do? What may I hope?” The book appeared at the beginning of the most productive period of his career, and by the end of his life Kant had worked out systematic, revolutionary, and.
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Mar 11, · possible to predict most natural disasters and minimize their consequences, major social impacts still have been seen over recent decades.
In this essay, a natural disaster is defined as a naturally occurring event that exerts adverse effects onto human society, including those caused by geological factors and infectious organisms.
"The climate system is particularly challenging since it is known that components in the system are inherently chaotic; there are feedbacks that could potentially switch sign, and there are central processes that affect the system in a complicated, non-linear manner.
Writing an essay on natural disasters does not have to be difficult if you take the time to get your research done and to plan out your writing. The following will help you to ensure that you will write an essay that is going to be attention-grabbing and grade winning:5/5. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (福島第一原子力発電所事故, Fukushima Dai-ichi (pronunciation) genshiryoku hatsudensho jiko) was an energy accident.