Essay on player piano

The author employs an omniscient narrator and progresses in a straightforward, chronological order. As in many of his other novels, Vonnegut offers a disturbing vision of a future world that, in the interests of progress and efficiency, robs humanity of its basic dignity and sense of self-worth. The America that Vonnegut depicts hums with the efficiency of its machines. Vonnegut probably was inspired to write Player Piano by his work in the publicity department of General Electric; his skepticism about the future promised by the makers of electronic gadgets is the major theme of the novel.

Essay on player piano

The same piece, on a modern piano Problems playing these files?

Essay on player piano

Modern piano Further information: Innovations in the piano In the period from about tothe Mozart-era piano underwent tremendous changes that led to the modern form of the instrument.

This revolution was in response to a preference by composers and pianists for a more powerful, sustained piano sound, and made possible by the ongoing Industrial Revolution with resources such as high-quality piano wire for stringsand precision casting for the production of massive iron frames that could withstand the tremendous tension of the strings.

Essay on player piano

Over time, the tonal range of the piano was also increased from the five octaves of Mozart's day to the seven octave or more range found on modern pianos. Broadwood square action click for page with legend Early technological progress in the late s owed much to the firm of Broadwood.

John Broadwood joined with another Scot, Robert Stodart, and a Dutchman, Americus Backersto design a piano in the harpsichord caseā€”the origin of the "grand". They achieved this in about They quickly gained a reputation for the splendour and powerful tone of their instruments, with Broadwood constructing pianos that were progressively larger, louder, and more robustly constructed.

They sent pianos to both Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethovenand were the first firm to build pianos with a range of more than five octaves: The Viennese makers similarly followed these trends; however the two schools used different piano actions: Broadwoods used a more robust action, whereas Viennese instruments were more sensitive.


This facilitated rapid playing of repeated notes, a musical device exploited by Liszt. When the invention became public, as revised by Henri Herzthe double escapement action gradually became standard in grand pianos, and is still incorporated into all grand pianos currently produced in the s.

Other improvements of the mechanism included the use of firm felt hammer coverings instead of layered leather or cotton. Felt, which was first introduced by Jean-Henri Pape inwas a more consistent material, permitting wider dynamic ranges as hammer weights and string tension increased.

The sostenuto pedal see belowinvented in by Jean-Louis Boisselot and copied by the Steinway firm inallowed a wider range of effects, such as playing a 10 note chord in the bass range, sustaining it with the pedal, and then moving both hands over to the treble range to play a two-hand melody or sequence of arpeggios.

One innovation that helped create the powerful sound of the modern piano was the use of a massive, strong, cast iron frame. Also called the "plate", the iron frame sits atop the soundboardand serves as the primary bulwark against the force of string tension that can exceed 20 tons kilonewtons in a modern grand.

Composite forged metal frames were preferred by many European makers until the American system was fully adopted by the early 20th century. The increased structural integrity of the iron frame allowed the use of thicker, tenser, and more numerous strings.

The use of a "choir" of three strings, rather than two for all but the lowest notes, enhanced the richness and complexity of the treble. The implementation of over-stringing, in which the strings are placed in two separate planes, each with its own bridge height, allowed greater length to the bass strings and optimized the transition from unwound tenor strings to the iron or copper-wound bass strings.

Over-stringing is also called cross-stringing. Whereas earlier instruments' bass strings were a continuation of a single string plane, over-stringing placed the bass bridge behind and to the treble side of the tenor bridge area.

This crossed the strings, with the bass strings in the higher plane.Can you imagine having the passion, drive, talent, and focus to labor not only weeks or months, but sometimes years (and often with nominal financial reward), to create something others can pick up, open, ignore, digest, savor, critique, enjoy, and experience in the form of a published book?

This forgery, Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus, was completed in To produce it, van Meegeren studied seventeenth-century pigment formulas, incorporated volatile flower oils in his pigments to create hardness, and used badger-hair brushes (a single modern bristle embedded in the paint would give him away) on canvas recycled from an unimportant seventeenth-century painting.

Free Player Piano papers, essays, and research papers. The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches.

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The first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dulcimers, which were used since the Middle Ages in Europe. Free Essay: Player Piano In Player Piano, everything is controlled by machines and computers and depends on productivity.

The managers and engineers only. This is one of two somewhat disappointing albums by Bill during his brief association with Columbia Records in the s. Initially listeners may be more disappointed with "Piano Player" than "The Bill Evans Album," but actually the former offers up several moments that are more memorable than any of those on the latter album.

Piano - Wikipedia