The Nazi rise to power I n the aftermath of World War I, Germany remained in turmoil throughout the s, providing an ideal setting for the rise of extremist ideologies and firebrand political leaders. To Germans burdened by reparations payments to war victors, and threatened by hyperinflation, political chaos, and a possible Communist takeover, Adolf Hitler offered scapegoats and solutions. Germans were provided with an easy explanation to all their problems: Following the meteoric rise of the Nazi Party, Hitler was appointed as chancellor of Germany on January 30,
That programme, which remained unaltered until the party was dissolved inconsisted of twenty-five points, of which the following five are of particular interest on account of the light they throw on the matters with which the Tribunal is concerned: We demand the unification of all Germans in the Greater Germany, on the basis of the right of a self-determination of peoples.
We demand equality of rights for the German people in respect to the other nations; abrogation of the peace treaties of Versailles and Saint Germain.
We demand land and territory for the sustenance of our people, and the colonisation of our surplus population. Only a member of the race can be a citizen. A member of the race can only be one who is of German blood, without consideration of creed.
Consequently no Jew can be a member of the race We demand abolition of the mercenary troops and formation of a national army.
In a typical speech at Munich on the 13th April,for example, Hitler said with regard to the Treaty of Versailles: At its foundation our movement formulated three demands.
Setting aside of the Peace Treaty. Unification of all Germans. Land and soil to feed our nation.
It was in this year that the Sturmabteilung or SA was founded, with Hitler at its head, as a private pare-military force, which allegedly was to be used for the purpose of protecting NSDAP leaders from attack by rival political parties, and preserving order at NSDAP meetings, but in reality was used for fighting political opponents on the streets.
In Marchthe defendant Goering was appointed head of the SA. The procedure within the Party was governed in the most absolute way by the leadership principle" Fuehrerprinzip. According to the principle, each Fuehrer has the right to govern, administer or decree, subject to no control of any kind and at his complete discretion, subject only to the orders he received from above.
This principle applied in the first instance to Hitler himself as the Leader of the Party, and in a lesser degree to all other party officials.
All members of the Party swore an oath of " eternal allegiance " to the Leader. There were only two ways in which Germany could achieve the three main aims above-mentioned, by negotiation, or by force. The twenty-five points of the NSDAP programme do not specifically mention the methods on which the leaders of the party proposed to rely, but the history of the Nazi regime shows that Hitler and his followers were only prepared to negotiate on the terms that their demands were conceded, and that force would be used if they were not.
On the night of November 8,an abortive putsch took place in Munich.
Hitler and some of his followers burst into a meeting in the Burgerbrau Cellar, which was being addressed by the Bavarian Prime Minister Kehr, with the intention of obtaining from him a decision to march forthwith on Berlin.
Only a few volleys were fired; and after a dozen of his followers had been killed, Hitler fled for his life, and the demonstration was over. The defendants Streicher, Frick and Hess all took part in the attempted rising. Hitler was later tried for high treason, and was convicted and sentenced to imprisonment.
The SA was outlawed.The Nazis tried to make Germany self-sufficient - that is, to produce all the goods it needed without having to rely on external supplies. This could be achieved more easily for some types of goods than for others, so the need to obtain access to oil, for example, was part of the reason for Germany's aggressive foreign policy in eastern Europe.
Twenty-five years later, the issue of individual decisions and the disruptions of the lives of citizens in Germany is the subject of Broken Lives: How Ordinary Germans Experienced the 20th Century.
This does not suggest that Nazi Germany was a pleasant place to live - unless of course you were one of the Nazi elite. 2 Ordinary people. For ordinary people, life was good, and many Germans even today look back and remember the years before as happy years: Most German young people were happy: Nazi culture was very youth-oriented.
The HJ provided exciting activities for young boys. But not all young people were happy with the Nazi regime: SOME.
- BBC debate-podcast on Life in Nazi Germany - Scott Allsop 's podcast on Life in Nazi Germany - Giles Hill on Nazi 2 Ordinary people. For ordinary people, life was good, and many Germans even today look back and remember the years before as happy years: But not all young people were happy with the Nazi regime: SOME girls were.
The question of defining German and Jewish identity was further complicated by the fact that there had been a great deal of intermarriage between the two groups, and there were thousands of people of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish ancestry, known to the Nazis as Mischlinge (“half-breeds” or “mixed-blood”).