July "Aggression" is a familiar term in common parlance, as well as a key concept in the study of human behavior. In conversation, we may use the word "aggressive" to define a person assaulting another, a carnivorous animal seeking prey, even a storm wreaking havoc on the earth it passes. For our purposes, the more narrow definition used in psychology is most appropriate.
Overview[ edit ] Aggression can have adaptive benefits or negative effects. Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of inflicting damage or harm.
One includes affective emotional and hostile, reactive, or retaliatory aggression that is a response to provocation, and the other includes instrumental, goal-oriented or predatoryin which aggression is used as a mean to achieve a goal.
An instrumental form of aggression would be armed robbery. Research on violence from a range of disciplines lend some support to a distinction between affective and predatory aggression. These depend on such things as whether the aggression is verbal or physical; whether or not it involves relational aggression such as covert bullying and social manipulation;  whether harm to others is intended or not; whether it is carried out actively or expressed passively; and whether the aggression is aimed directly or indirectly.
Classification may also encompass aggression-related emotions e. The operative definition of aggression may be affected by moral or political views. Examples are the axiomatic moral view called the non-aggression principle and the political rules governing the behavior of one country toward another.
Psychological approaches conceptualize aggression as a destructive instinct, a response to frustration, an affect excited by a negative stimulus, a result of observed learning of society and diversified reinforcement, a resultant of variables that affect personal and situational environments.
The Latin was itself a joining of ad- and gradi- which meant step at.
The first known use dates back toin the sense of an unprovoked attack. Child raising experts began to refer to aggression, rather than anger, from the s. In such settings aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing, but most conflicts are settled by threat displays and intimidating thrusts that cause no physical harm.
This form of aggression may include the display of body size, antlers, claws or teeth; stereotyped signals including facial expressions; vocalizations such as bird song; the release of chemicals; and changes in coloration.
Most ethologists believe that aggression confers biological advantages. Aggression may help an animal secure territoryincluding resources such as food and water.
Aggression may also occur for self-protection or to protect offspring. However, according to many researchers, predation is not aggression. A cat does not hiss or arch its back when pursuing a rat, and the active areas in its hypothalamus resemble those that reflect hunger rather than those that reflect aggression.
An animal defending against a predator may engage in either " fight or flight " or " tend and befriend " in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on its estimate of the predator's strength relative to its own.
Alternative defenses include a range of antipredator adaptationsincluding alarm signals. An example of an alarm signal is nerol, a chemical which is found in the mandibular glands of Trigona fulviventris individuals.
One of its most common functions is to establish a dominance hierarchy. This occurs in many species by aggressive encounters between contending males when they are first together in a common environment. Group-living animals may dispute over the direction of travel or the allocation of time to joint activities.
Various factors limit the escalation of aggression, including communicative displays, conventions, and routines. In addition, following aggressive incidents, various forms of conflict resolution have been observed in mammalian species, particularly in gregarious primates.
These can mitigate or repair possible adverse consequences, especially for the recipient of aggression who may become vulnerable to attacks by other members of a group. Conciliatory acts vary by species and may involve specific gestures or simply more proximity and interaction between the individuals involved.
However, conflicts over food are rarely followed by post conflict reunions, even though they are the most frequent type in foraging primates. Captive animals including primates may show abnormal levels of social aggression and self-harm that are related to aspects of the physical or social environment; this depends on the species and individual factors such as gender, age and background e.
This cost-benefit analysis can be looked at in terms of evolution. However, there are profound differences in the extent of acceptance of a biological or evolutionary basis for human aggression.
As such, conflicts may have created selection evolutionary pressures for psychological mechanisms in men to initiate intergroup aggression. This is most obviously the case in terms of attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predatory defense.
It may also be the case in competition between members of the same species or subgroup, if the average reward e. There are some hypotheses of specific adaptions for violence in humans under certain circumstances, including for homicidebut it is often unclear what behaviors may have been selected for and what may have been a byproduct, as in the case of collective violence.
Game theory is used to understand how such behaviors might spread by natural selection within a population, and potentially become 'Evolutionary Stable Strategies'.Aggression.
These emotions include anger and metin2sell.comsion serves many purposes for human beings. It is used to express one’s anger, affirm dominance and to attain goals. It is also human beings’ response to fear or reaction to pain (Cherry, ). Psychology Aggression Unit 3: Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression Notes What You Need To Know: Evolutionary Explanations of human aggression, including infidelity and jealousy Explanations of group display in humans.
Agression is necessary for survival: Discuss Essay. ESSAY TITLE: “Aggression is necessary for survival: Discuss - Agression is necessary for survival: Discuss Essay introduction. Base your answer on psychological theories and models introduced in class.”.
Totalitarian World, Conformity Is Necessary for Survival ‘In a totalitarian world, conformity is necessary for survival.’metin2sell.com Orwell’s political parable, , portrays an oppressive and dictatorial government, which thereby presents to the reader a palpable sense of danger and malevolence born out of the creation of a counter utopic .
Then there's aggression on a much more sinister scale, in the form of murder, wars and genocide. Just as compassion for your offspring increases your genes' chance of survival, violent. Free Essays “Aggression is necessary for survival: Discuss. Base your answer on psychological theories and models introduced in class.